Fact Sheet: The United States And India – Strategic And Global Partners

We the People(‘s) Dictatorship? Constitutional Politics in the United States and China

Commercial Dialogue: The U.S. Department of Commerce and Indian Ministry of Commerce and Industry led a public-private discussion on September 24 on manufacturing and supply chain sustainability to conserve food, energy, and natural resources. Civil Aviation Cooperation: The U. S. Trade and Development Agency, with other U.S. agencies, sponsoring the U.S.-India Aviation Summit, October 29-31, 2013, in Washington, D.C. The summit intends to focus on new air traffic management technologies, aircraft environmental issues, and expanding aviation infrastructure. The Indian civil aviation market is expected to be the worlds third largest by 2020, surpassing 450 million domestic passengers. Manufacturing: To facilitate closer cooperation on strengthening the manufacturing sector in both countries and eliminating barriers that dampen investor confidence, the United States has proposed the creation of a Joint Committee on Investment in Manufacturing. High Technology: Since the Department of Commerce launched the High Technology Cooperation Group in 2002, U.S. strategic trade exports have increased significantly, exceeding $5.8 billion in 2012. Only 0.02 percent of U.S. exports to India require a license today, compared with 24 percent in 1999. Cooperating on Clean Energy, Energy Access, and Climate Change Civil Nuclear Cooperation: The Westinghouse Electric Company and the Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Ltd., signed a preliminary commercial contract under the auspices of the U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Initiative. This agreement should facilitate progress toward licensing the AP-1000 nuclear reactor technology in India. The Indian government is planning to develop commercial nuclear power sites in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh using U.S. nuclear technology. Both governments also decided to complete discussions on the Administrative Arrangements at an early date.

Finally, United States Signs Global Arms Trade Treaty

‘I have said before that I am not a historian, and that when it comes to speaking of the dimensions of the Holocaust it is the historians that should reflect on it,’ Rouhani told Amanpour. ‘But in general I can tell you that any crime that happens in history against humanity, including the crime the Nazis committed towards the Jews, as well as non-Jewish people, was reprehensible and condemnable as far as we are concerned.’ Message to the World: Iranian President Hasan Rouhani speaks during the 68th session of the General Assembly at United Nations headquarters, Tuesday, Sept. 24, 2013 Earlier in the day President Obama cautiously embraced overtures from Iran’s new president as the basis for a possible nuclear deal, but a failed effort to arrange a simple handshake between the two leaders underscored entrenched distrust that will be hard to overcome. In a speech to the United Nations, Obama said he was determined to test President Hassan Rouhani’s recent diplomatic gestures and challenged him to take concrete steps toward resolving Iran’s long-running nuclear dispute with the West. Hours later, Rouhani used his debut at the world body to pledge Iran’s willingness to engage immediately in ‘time-bound’ talks on the nuclear issue but he offered no new concessions and repeated many of Iran’s grievances against the United States, and Washington’s key Middle East ally, Israel. A senior U.S. official said the difficulty in arranging the handshake had been on the Iranian side. ‘We indicated that the two leaders could have had a discussion on the margins if the opportunity presented itself,’ the official said. ‘The Iranians got back to us. It was clear that it was too complicated for them to do that at this time given their own dynamic back home.’ The failed handshake was a sign of the difficulties the United States and Iran countries face in trying to seize a historic opening after decades of hostility. Demands for Diplomacy: U.S. President Barack Obama addresses the 68th session of the United Nations General Assembly, Tuesday, Sept. 24, 2013 Even a brief meeting would have been symbolically important given that it would have been the first face-to-face contact between U.S. and Iranian heads of government since before the 1979 Islamic revolution that ousted the U.S.-backed shah.

Smiling Iranian president makes direct offer of ‘peace and friendship’ to the United States in his first English message since election

First Address: Iranian President Hassan Rouhani addresses the 68th United Nations General Assembly at UN headquarters in New York, September 24, 2013

Though Americans disagree about whether our Constitution is “living,” most everyone can agree the Chinese Constitution has always been dead. On one level, this should surprise no one. The Chinese Communist Party remains deeply skeptical of any constraint on its ability to make policy. The Supreme People’s Court in Beijing cannot exercise judicial review, and the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPCSC) – which is technically empowered to assess constitutional review petitions – has not once nullified a law or regulation. Yet, over the past decade, the constitutional system in China has – in one small but significant way – begun to resemble that of the United States: Like their American counterparts, Chinese advocates from opposing sides of the political spectrum have been waging policy battles through constitutional argument. Neo-Marxists have employed legal arguments that sound somewhat originalist to stall privatization reforms, while political liberals have begun citing liberty and equality clauses to oppose overbearing state policies. Is the Chinese Constitution beginning to acquire a political life of its own? Constitutional politics in the United States have been supercharged since before Jefferson denied Marbury his commission in 1801. In the early years of the Republic, political disputes centered on the reach of federal power, and were fought over proxy wars in courtrooms almost as often as they were debated in legislatures. Modern political parties continue to impute preferred policies into the constitutional text – but today, the battle lines are drawn somewhat differently. American liberals favor interpretive approaches that see constitutional meanings as evolving – and socially adaptive – whereas conservatives emphasize strict adherence to original intent or public meanings. In China, the relevant ideological disputes have been happening within the Communist Party itself. These tensions map along a rift that emerged among the Chinese intelligentsia in the early 1990s: on one side, the New Right, which advocates liberalizing China’s economic and political institutions, and on the other, the New Left, which aims to restore state intervention and revive elements of Chinese socialism. These debates are more than academic.

I signed it because President Obama knows that from decades of efforts that anytime we work with cooperatively to address the illicit trade in conventional weapons, we make the world a safer place, Kerry said. And this treaty is a significant step in that effort. The legal arms trade, comprised of both the import and export weapons, constitutes around $70 billion annually. Attack helicopters, tanks and other larger arms are covered under the treaty, as well as small arms and ammunition for these weapons. Under the terms of the treaty , states are required to determine whether the shipment of arms to a second country would be used to commit atrocities or violate human rights or if they could be diverted for such a purpose, and report back to the U.N. Secretariat on their efforts. Counter to worries that the ATT will constitute an infringement of the Second Amendment in the United States, the American Bar Association has concluded that Americans neednt fear such an outcome. As the ABA points out in their white paper , import restrictions on firearms have been ruled constitutionally valid. At present, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms already regulates and tracks the import of firearms into the United States, leaving no need for further domestic legislation regarding the ATTs implementation. Exports of firearms, the ABA also notes, are not protected under the Second Amendment. This treaty will not diminish anyones freedom, Kerry said. In fact the treaty recognizes the ability of both individuals and states to obtain, possess, and use arms for legit purposes. Make no mistake, we would never think about supporting a treaty that is inconsistent with the rights of Americans, the rights of American citizens, to be able to exercise their guaranteed rights under our Constitution. The U.S. voted in favor of the treaty in April, as did the vast majority of the world. In fact, only Syria, Iran and North Korea voted against it .